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政治vs經濟 港珠澳大橋 跨境共識

2008.03.06
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[B]學習目標[/B]
透過本學習範圍的學習經歷,學生應能:
1.了解身處的社會、國家和世界所面對的重要議題;
2.識別不同社會、不同國家和世界之間的依存關係,以及彼此之間的相互影響。

磋商了二十多年的港珠澳大橋項目,三地政府終於在上周達成融資問題共識,方案如順利通過,大橋建設便會進入招標階段,正式動工興建。這條貫穿珠海、澳門及香港三地的大橋,建成後,將會成為世界上最長的大橋。大橋的興建,會為港珠澳三地未來的經濟、交通和社會發展帶來甚麼影響?

[B]興建背景[/B]

港珠澳大橋的構思,最初是港商胡應湘在1983年提出的。初時他建議興建一條連接香港和珠海的伶仃洋大橋,可惜由於造橋工程牽涉三地融資、口岸及環保等問題,一直未能達成共識方案。去年特首在施政報告中,再將興建港珠澳大橋納入未來十大基建項目內;今年初,廣東省將大橋納入國家重點建設的前期項目之一,令磋商長達二十五年的大橋計畫終露曙光。

[B]融資方案[/B]

根據三地政府的共識,造價三百多億元的大橋主體,會由財團以「BOT」(興建-營運-轉移)形式建造,並承擔大部分投資額,三地政府則各按經濟效益比例作出補貼,其中港府補貼最多,承擔比率達五成以上。如根據去年國家發改委副主任張曉強披露,大橋預計可為三地帶來的經濟效益比例為︰香港佔六成四、澳門佔一成,廣東則佔兩成六。

[B]建設工程[/B]

大橋的設計為一條三綫雙程分隔車道,主體長二十九點六公里,採用橋隧結合方案設計,貫通珠海、澳門及香港三地,建成後將成為世界上最長的大橋。大橋在三地的落腳點分別在香港的䃟石灣、珠海的拱北及澳門的明珠。三地政府均願意承擔大橋落腳點的口岸建設及連接道路的成本,預計分別約為一百億元。大橋在香港的䃟石灣會連接現有的北大嶼山公路,同時會接駁正籌備興建的屯門西繞道及屯門至赤鱲角連接路,令大橋接駁新界西面及機場。

[B]經濟效益[/B]

現時由香港乘船至澳門,單是船程動輒要花一個小時,待港珠澳大橋落成後,駕車穿梭港珠或港澳,預計只需十五至二十分鐘。三地交通更形便利,將可帶來三地經濟互動增長,例如可吸引香港投資者到珠江三角洲西岸投資,亦可促進三地旅遊業。有旅遊業界便預期,大橋落成後可落實本港發展區域性旅遊的概念,訪港旅客人數,保守估計亦可「翻一番」。貨運業界亦相信,大橋有助本港開拓中山及番禺貨運市場。
從宏觀經濟而言,港珠澳大橋落成後,除可推動珠三角有更緊密的經濟互動,還可帶動整個「9+2」泛珠三角區域與東南亞多國的經濟合作發展,意義重大。

[B]爭論點:政治意義?[/B]
儘管三地政府都憧憬大橋會帶來龐大的經濟效益,但另一方面,亦有言論指建橋的政治意義大於經濟效益。例如物流方面,未必會令物流運輸量大增。中山大學珠三角研究中心教授鄭天祥認為,如今粵西到港的貨運量已接近飽和,廠家又未必會在珠三角設新廠,靠現有的貨運量,建橋的政治意義大於經濟效益。不過短期來說,倘港珠澳大橋、港鐵南港島綫正式落實興建,可帶動周邊的樓價上漲,同時能製造更多就業機會,紓緩開工不足的壓力。

[B]相關概念:興建-營運-轉移(BOT Build-Operate-Transfer)[/B]
BOT是近年來政府興建公共建設的熱門方式之一,如現時的東隧、西隧、大老山隧道、大欖隧道等等,均是以BOT方式興建。BOT是指民間興建(Build)營運(Operate)後轉移(Transfer)的模式,指政府將公共建設的工程特許權,交由民間投資興建,民間承包商在特許期內,將負責設計、籌措經費、興建、營運與管理,在興建完成後,可一同營運,並回收成本、償還債務、賺取利潤,直至特許期結束後,再將項目所有權移交政府。

[B]小資料:「9+2」泛珠三角區域合作[/B]
泛珠三角區域簡稱「9+2」,包括由福建、江西、湖南、廣東、廣西、海南、四川、貴州、雲南九個省區,和香港、澳門兩個特別行政區組成的經濟區。

[B]圖片題[/B]
請在下列空格內填上適當的地方名稱。
A. 澳門 B. 䃟石灣 C. 香港 D. 拱北 E. 明珠 F. 珠海
1.______ 2.______ 3._____ 4._____ 5._____

[B]答案[/B]
1.C
2.B
3.F
4.D
5.A
6.E

[B]閱讀理解[/B]
[B]問︰[/B]研究方案認為,港珠澳大橋建成後,香港的經濟得益最大,具體來說,大橋會為香港帶來哪些經濟效益?
[B]答︰[/B]______________________________________________________

[B]多角度思考[/B]
[B]問︰[/B]港珠澳大橋通車後,可促進三地頻繁交流,對香港來說,你認為是好事還是壞事?(參考答案見P.8)
[B]答︰[/B]_______________________________________________________

[B]參考資源[/B]
.泛珠三角區域合作
[A]http://big5.southcn.com/gate/big5/www.southcn.com/news/gdnews/hotspot/fzsj/[/A]
.香港路政署
[A]http://www.hyd.gov.hk/CHI/major/road/projects/6787th/index.htm[/A]

--------------------------------------------------------------
[B]●英文通識[/B]

[B]The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge (Writes Anvil Ong) [/B]

[B]Background[/B]

The idea of building a bridge connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai (珠海) and Macau (澳門) was first brought up by businessman Gordon Wu Ying-sheung (胡應湘) in 1983. At first he proposed building a Lingdingyang Bridge (伶仃洋大橋) to connect Hong Kong and Zhuhai. Unfortunately, the construction of the bridge involved financing, border and environmental considerations of the regions and no consensus (共識) had been reached.
In the policy address last year, the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge was again added into the Ten Major Infrastructure Projects (十大基建項目) list. Earlier this year, The Guangdong Province (廣東省) had also added the bridge to the priority list of the National Key Construction Projects (國家重點建設), bringing new light to the planning of the bridge that had taken 25 years.

[B]Financing scheme[/B]

According to the consensus reached by the governments of the three regions, the $30 billion bridge will be constructed under a Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) (興建-營運-轉移) form of project financing by investors. The three governments have agreed to share the amount of subsidy according to cost-to-benefit ratios, with Hong Kong paying the greatest part of over 50 percent. According to what Zhang Xiaoqiang, vice chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission, (國家發改委副主任張曉強) said last year, Hong Kong, Macau and Guangdong will be sharing the cost-benefits in the ratio of 64, 10 and 26 percent respectively.

[B]Construction[/B]

The bridge will be built as a six-lane expressway with three lanes in each direction. The main body of the bridge will be about 29.6 km. The bridge will be connecting the three regions with bridge/tunnel switching (橋隧結合) facilities. When completed, it will be the longest bridge on earth with landings at Hong Kong's San Shek Wan (䃟石灣), Zhuhai's Gongbei (拱北) and Macau's A Perola (明珠). The three governments will be responsible for the construction and operation of the boundary crossing facilities and the connecting roads to the bridge within their own territory. At the same time, the proposed Tuen Mun Western Bypass (屯門西繞道) and Tuen Mun - Chek Lap Kok Link (屯門至赤鱲角連接路) will link Western New Territories to the airport.

[B]Economic benefits[/B]

Currently, a ferry trip from Hong Kong to Macau will take around an hour. After the completion of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, a car trip between Hong Kong and Macau or Hong Kong and Zhuhai will take only 15 to 20 minutes. The convenience will bring mutual economic benefits to the three regions. For example, Hong Kong investors can be attracted to invest in the western coast of the Pearl River Delta region (珠江三角洲). It can also benefit tourism among the three regions. The tourist industry has predicted that upon completion of the bridge, Hong Kong's tourism will go regional with the number of visitors at least doubling. The transport industry also believes that the bridge will open up business opportunities in Zhong Shan (中山) and Pan Yu (番禺).
In terms of macro-economy, after its completion, the bridge will foster closer economic relations among the three regions. It can even help promote "9+2" Pan Pearl River Delta (泛珠三角區) regional co-operation with other Southeast Asian countries. It is of great significance.

[B]Exercise[/B]

[B]Fill in the blanks below with word from the article.[/B]

1.He _____ writing a letter to the head of the company.
2.Our company considers safety to be a _____ .
3.The directors could not reach a _____ on the matter.
4.You will be _____ for the smooth operation of the company.
5.Market fluctuations will be very hard to_____.

Suggested answers: 1. proposed, 2. priority, 3. consensus, 4. responsible, 5. predict

[B]Think about it[/B]

1.How will the construction of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge affect the ecological environment of the three regions?
____________________________________________________________________
2.The bridge was proposed in 1983. Do you think its construction will still be as cost-effective today?
____________________________________________________________________

輯錄自○八年三月六日《通識教材》










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